Disagreements Between Countries
Negotiating in the world of national interests meant balancing the competing interests of States, acting or finding common interests that could form the basis of an agreement, even in the face of other conflicting interests. The search for common interests was characteristic of Cold War-era negotiations aimed at preventing military confrontations between the United States and the Soviet Union. For example, negotiations aimed at ending the Cuban crisis and putting in place confidence-building measures to avoid accidental nuclear war were based on the common interest of reducing the risk of confrontations that could escalate into nuclear war. In Chapter 13, David Laitin examines the role of language conflicts and language policies in inter-group violence in multi-ethnic countries. The chapter addresses two questions: how do language differences within a country affect the potential for violence between language groups? What is the impact of measures to combat linguistic differences on the likelihood of such violence? The dangers of 2017 were a quieter year 2018 and early 2019. The United States has halted most joint military exercises with South Korea, and Pyongyang has suspended long-range and nuclear missile tests. Relations between the United States and North Korea have thawed somewhat, with two Trump-Kim summits. The first – in Singapore in June 2018 – produced a misleading statement of agreed principles and the possibility of diplomatic negotiations. The second – in Hanoi in February 2019 – collapsed when the rift between the two leaders over the scale and succession of denuclearization and sanctions facilitation became clear. Development issues are part of a growing ideological competition between the world`s two leading powers.
Failure of the Social Contract – This is what emerges from the view that social stability is based on a hypothetical social contract between the people and the government. People accept the authority of the state as long as the state provides services and offers adequate economic conditions (employment and income). With economic stagnation or the decline and deterioration of public services, the social contract collapses and violence erupts. As a result, poverty and declining public services can be expected to translate into conflict. Since then, the diplomatic atmosphere has deteriorated. In April 2019, Kim unilaterally set the U.S. government a year-end deadline to present a deal that could break the deadlock. In June, Trump and Kim agreed on a handshake in the demilitarized zone that separates the two Koreas, at the labor level, on service measures. However, in October, an eight-hour meeting between envoys to Sweden resulted in a vacuum. Today`s window reflects the movement on these last two fronts.
First, fighting between Loyalists of the Southern Transitional Council (NRC) and the government in August 2019 brought the anti-Houthi bloc to the point of collapse. Riyadh had little choice but to arbitrate a ceasefire between them to maintain its war efforts. Second, in September, a rocket attack on major Saudi oil facilities — claimed by the Houthis but widely suspected of having been launched by Tehran — highlighted the risks of a war between the United States, its Gulf allies and Iran, none of which seems to want. This has helped push the Saudis and Houthis into talks aimed at defusing their conflict and moving Yemen away from the terrain of the regional struggle for Saudi-Iranian power; both sides have significantly reduced cross-border strikes. . . .